## Puzzle of the Week #21:

Produce a report that shows employee name, his/her immediate manager name, and the next level manager name. The following conditions should be met:

• Use Single SELECT statement only
• Use mgr column to identify employee’s immediate manager
• The query should work in Oracle 11g.
• A preferred solution should use only a single instance of emp table.

### Expected Result:

```NAME1      NAME2      NAME3
---------- ---------- ------
SMITH      FORD       JONES
ALLEN      BLAKE      KING
WARD       BLAKE      KING
JONES      KING
MARTIN     BLAKE      KING
BLAKE      KING
CLARK      KING
SCOTT      JONES      KING
KING
TURNER     BLAKE      KING
JAMES      BLAKE      KING
FORD       JONES      KING
MILLER     CLARK      KING```

### Solutions:

#1. Using connect_by_root, sys_connect_by_path, and regexp_substr functions

```col name1 for a10
col name2 for a10
col name3 for a10
WITH x AS(
SELECT CONNECT_BY_ROOT(ename) name,
SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH(ename, ',') path,
CONNECT_BY_ROOT(empno) empno
FROM emp
WHERE LEVEL<=3
CONNECT BY empno=PRIOR mgr
)
SELECT name, REGEXP_SUBSTR(MAX(path), '[^,]+', 1, 2) name2,
REGEXP_SUBSTR(MAX(path), '[^,]+', 1, 3) name3
FROM x
GROUP BY name, empno
ORDER BY empno;```

#2. Using CONNECT BY twice

```WITH x AS (
SELECT ename, PRIOR ename mname, empno, mgr
FROM emp
WHERE LEVEL=2 OR mgr IS NULL
CONNECT BY PRIOR empno=mgr
)
SELECT ename name1, mname name2, MAX(PRIOR mname) name3
FROM x
WHERE LEVEL<=2
CONNECT BY PRIOR empno=mgr
GROUP BY ename, mname, empno
ORDER BY empno```

#3. Using CONNECT BY and Self Outer Join

```WITH x AS (
SELECT ename, PRIOR ename mname, PRIOR mgr AS mgr, empno
FROM emp
WHERE LEVEL=2 OR mgr IS NULL
CONNECT BY PRIOR empno=mgr
)
SELECT x.ename name1, x.mname name2, e.ename name3
FROM x LEFT JOIN emp e ON x.mgr=e.empno
ORDER BY x.empno```

#4. Using 2 Self Outer Joins

```SELECT a.ename name1, b.ename name2, c.ename name3
FROM emp a LEFT JOIN emp b ON a.mgr=b.empno
LEFT JOIN emp c ON b.mgr=c.empno
ORDER BY a.empno```

#5. Using CONNECT BY and PIVOT

```SELECT name1, name2, name3
FROM (
SELECT ename, LEVEL lvl, CONNECT_BY_ROOT(empno) empno
FROM emp
WHERE LEVEL<=3
CONNECT BY empno=PRIOR mgr
)
PIVOT(
MAX(ename)
FOR lvl IN (1 AS name1, 2 AS name2, 3 AS name3)
)
ORDER BY empno;```

#6. PIVOT Simulation

```WITH x AS (
SELECT ename, LEVEL lvl, CONNECT_BY_ROOT(empno) empno
FROM emp
WHERE LEVEL<=3
CONNECT BY empno=PRIOR mgr
)
SELECT MAX(DECODE(lvl, 1, ename)) name1,
MAX(DECODE(lvl, 2, ename)) name2,
MAX(DECODE(lvl, 3, ename)) name3
FROM x
GROUP BY empno
ORDER BY empno;```

#7. Using CONNECT BY and no WITH/Subqueries (Credit to Krishna Jamal)

```SELECT ename Name1, PRIOR ename Name2,
DECODE(LEVEL,
3, CONNECT_BY_ROOT(ename),
4, TRIM(BOTH ' ' FROM
REPLACE(
REPLACE(SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH(PRIOR ename, ' '), PRIOR ename),
CONNECT_BY_ROOT(ename)))
) Name3
FROM emp
CONNECT BY PRIOR empno = mgr
ORDER BY ROWID;```

#8. A composition of Methods 1 and 7:

```SELECT ename Name1, PRIOR ename Name2,
CASE WHEN LEVEL IN (3,4)
THEN REGEXP_SUBSTR(SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH(ename, ','),'[^,]+',1,LEVEL-2)
END AS Name3
FROM emp
CONNECT BY PRIOR empno = mgr
ORDER BY ROWID;```

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## Puzzle of the Week #5:

Write a single SELECT statement that would list all 12 months and number of employees hired in each month. Year part should be ignored. Use emp table (in scott schema). Find as many solutions as possible.

Expected Result:

```Month  Number of hires
------ ---------------
JAN                  1
FEB                  2
MAR                  0
APR                  2
MAY                  2
JUN                  1
JUL                  0
AUG                  0
SEP                  2
OCT                  0
NOV                  1
DEC                  3

```

Method/Workaround #1: Recursive WITH clause

```WITH x(mm, mon, hires) AS (
SELECT 1 as mm, 'JAN' AS mon, COUNT(*) hires
FROM emp
WHERE EXTRACT(MONTH FROM hiredate)=1
UNION ALL
(SELECT COUNT(*)
FROM emp
WHERE EXTRACT(MONTH FROM hiredate)=x.mm+1)
FROM x
WHERE x.mm+1<=12
)
SELECT mon, hires
FROM x
/
MON               HIRES
------------ ----------
JAN                   1
FEB                   2
MAR                   0
APR                   2
MAY                   2
JUN                   1
JUL                   0
AUG                   0
SEP                   2
OCT                   0
NOV                   1
DEC                   3
```

Method/Workaround #2: LEFT JOIN

```WITH x AS (
SELECT LEVEL mm, TO_CHAR(ADD_MONTHS(DATE'2000-01-01', LEVEL-1), 'MON') mon
FROM dual
CONNECT BY LEVEL<=12
)
SELECT x.mon, COUNT(e.empno) hires
FROM x LEFT JOIN emp e ON x.mm=EXTRACT(MONTH FROM e.hiredate)
GROUP BY x.mon, x.mm
ORDER BY x.mm
/
MON               HIRES
------------ ----------
JAN                   1
FEB                   2
MAR                   0
APR                   2
MAY                   2
JUN                   1
JUL                   0
AUG                   0
SEP                   2
OCT                   0
NOV                   1
DEC                   3
```

Method/Workaround #3: UNION ALL

```WITH x AS (
SELECT LEVEL mm, TO_CHAR(ADD_MONTHS(DATE'2000-01-01', LEVEL-1), 'MON') mon, 0 as hires
FROM dual
CONNECT BY LEVEL<=12
UNION ALL
SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM hiredate), TO_CHAR(hiredate, 'MON'), COUNT(*)
FROM emp
GROUP BY EXTRACT(MONTH FROM hiredate), TO_CHAR(hiredate, 'MON')
)
SELECT mon, MAX(hires) AS hires
FROM x
GROUP BY mm, mon
ORDER BY mm
/
MON               HIRES
------------ ----------
JAN                   1
FEB                   2
MAR                   0
APR                   2
MAY                   2
JUN                   1
JUL                   0
AUG                   0
SEP                   2
OCT                   0
NOV                   1
DEC                   3

```

If you like this post, you may want to join my new Oracle group on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/sqlpatterns/

For more tricks and cool techniques check my book “Oracle SQL Tricks and Workarounds” for instructions.

## Interview Question: How to Retrieve Unique Values without Using DISTINCT keyword

Question: List unique jobs (from emp table) without using DISTINCT keyword

Question Level: Beginner+

We picked 5 different methods (workarounds) to show in this post. It is possible to produce at least 15 if you read some other posts in this blog.

Method/Workaround #1: Use GROUP BY (Level: Beginner)

```SELECT job
FROM emp
GROUP BY job
```

Method/Workaround #2: Use Analytical functions with a subquery (Level: Intermediate)

```SELECT job
FROM(SELECT job, ROW_NUMBER()OVER(PARTITION BY job ORDER BY 1) rn
FROM emp)
WHERE rn=1
```

Method/Workaround #3: Use correlated subquery (Level: Intermediate)

```SELECT job
FROM emp a
WHERE empno=(SELECT MAX(empno)
FROM emp
WHERE job=a.job)
```

Method/Workaround #4: Use left join with IS NULL filter (Level: Advanced)

```SELECT a.job
FROM emp a LEFT JOIN emp b ON a.job=b.job AND a.empno<b.empno
WHERE b.empno IS NULL
```

Method/Workaround #5: Use NOT EXIST (Level: Intermediate)

```SELECT job
FROM emp a
WHERE NOT EXISTS(SELECT 1
FROM emp b
WHERE a.job=b.job
AND b.empno>a.empno)
```

For more tricks and cool techniques check my book “Oracle SQL Tricks and Workarounds” for instructions.