## Combine the power of COALESCE, GREATEST, and NULLIF functions

CASE function is extremely powerful though bulky. It looks and feels like a PL/SQL element even though it is just another SQL function. In some cases, we have an opportunity to use a different, more concise expression avoiding CASE function.

Let’s consider a problem: return a list of all employee names with respective salary and commission columns. If commission is NULL or 0, replace it with 10% of the salary.

A typical solution (with CASE) would look like this:

```SELECT ename, sal, CASE WHEN NVL(comm,0)=0 THEN 0.1*sal ELSE comm END AS comm
FROM emp
ORDER BY 1;

Result:

ENAME             SAL       COMM
---------- ---------- ----------
ALLEN            1600        300
BLAKE            2850        285
CLARK            2450        245
FORD             3000        300
JAMES             950         95
JONES            2975      297.5
KING             5000        500
MARTIN           1250       1400
MILLER           1300        130
SCOTT            3000        300
SMITH             800         80
TURNER           1500        150
WARD             1250        500
```

Before presenting a workaround, let’s review the raw data:

```SELECT ename, sal, comm
FROM emp
ORDER BY 1;

Result:

ENAME             SAL       COMM
---------- ---------- ----------
ALLEN            1600        300
BLAKE            2850
CLARK            2450
FORD             3000
JAMES             950
JONES            2975
KING             5000
MARTIN           1250       1400
MILLER           1300
SCOTT            3000
SMITH             800
TURNER           1500          0
WARD             1250        500
```

Essentially, we want to substitute the comm value for all employees except ALLEN, MARTIN, and WARD.

If we did not have to deal with \$0 commission (WARD), we could have used NVL(comm, 0.1*sal) expression, or COALESCE(comm, 0.1*sal) which works identically to NVL function for 2 parameters.

So if we could turn 0 into NULL, we would be able to employ NVL/COALESCE instead of CASE function.

Here comes the turn of NULLIF function. It can do exactly what we need: substitute 0 (or any other value) with NULL. It can be done by the following expression:

```NULLIF(comm,0) -- which means: when comm=0 then return NULL.
```

There is one issue that needs to be resolved before we can use the COALSCE function. We cannot make 2 different expression returing NULL is 2 cases, when the argument is 0 or NULL. However, we can employ GREATEST (or LEAST) function to wrap up multiple arguments that may evaluate to NULL and return just one value – it will be NULL if any of the arguments of GREATEST evaluate to NULL.

So, finally, our workaround will look as follows:

```SELECT ename, sal, COALESCE(GREATEST(comm, NULLIF(comm,0)), 0.1*sal) AS comm
FROM emp
ORDER BY 1;

Result:

ENAME             SAL       COMM
---------- ---------- ----------
ALLEN            1600        300
BLAKE            2850        285
CLARK            2450        245
FORD             3000        300
JAMES             950         95
JONES            2975      297.5
KING             5000        500
MARTIN           1250       1400
MILLER           1300        130
SCOTT            3000        300
SMITH             800         80
TURNER           1500        150   <-- 0 is replaced with 150 (10%)
WARD             1250        500
```

COALESCE function comes really handy (combined with NULLIF & GREATEST/LEAST) when we have multiple values of a column that we would like to treat as 0.
For example, if we wanted to treat \$0, \$300, and \$500 as NULLs we could have used the following expression:

```COALESCE(GREATEST(comm, NULLIF(comm,0), NULLIF(comm,300), NULLIF(comm,500)), 0.1*sal)
```

The trick is hidden in the fact that GREATEST returns NULL if one of the parameters is a NULL.

For more tricks and cool techniques check my book “Oracle SQL Tricks and Workarounds” for instructions.